Ideally I would provide full architectural design and administration services for every project. Let’s be honest, that’s the want of every architect for every project. However, for several reasons, I realize this is not always an option, nor is it always necessary. Cost is typically a primary issue on every project, and usually the first thing to be eliminated is the professional services of an architect. However, as a client you need to be aware of options that do not eliminate the services of your architect.
The primary means of reducing the design fee is to reduce the level of service provided. However, that in turn will result in more responsibility for you and it becomes crucial (even more so) to have a competent contractor. Obviously, the greater amount of detail included in the drawings, the clearer the procedure for construction. The design drawings are vital in assuring you that your house is built the way you want it. The more detail in the drawings the more control you have over the resultant house. Anything not included in the drawings is at the discretion of the contractor. You’ll have less control over the final outcome of the house because you have given the contractor fewer instructions/information to follow.
In this installment of the ‘Hiring an Architect’ series, I address typical levels of service available from an architect. Keep in mind not all architects are willing to work on a project where their services are limited- and there are some projects I won’t either. However, it does afford potential options to a client who is not in a position to hire an architect for full services, but does realize the value of an architect in the design of their home. Outlined below are differing Levels of design service available to you:
LEVEL 1: SCHEMATIC DESIGN DRAWINGS
This level uses an architect’s special training to problem solve, but the task of producing drawings for permitting and construction is the responsibility of others and is hired by you. This level is appropriate for simple designs. This level of service is appropriate if you want a house designed for your particular needs, but want to either draw the plans yourself or to have the builder, or a drafting service perform the drawing creation.
These drawings are by no means enough for permitting or actual construction. The drawings indicate the design intent of your home. Prior to building, you will need to hire someone to think through how the house will be constructed, and to document those decisions in a set of drawings, suitable for obtaining the permit and building the house. This approach is appropriate if you wish to have standard finishes and details. Services typically include the following phase and associated deliverables:
Schematic Design (SD)
Schematic Design Drawings provided. Room sizes will be indicated but not dimensioned. The Schematic Design Drawings will be formatted at a size of 11×17, hand drawn, and consist of the following:
– Floor Plan(s)
– Roof Plan(s)
– Exterior Elevations- at each exterior façade
LEVEL 2: SCHEMATIC DESIGN + SCHEMATIC DESIGN RESOLUTION PACKAGE
This level of service is appropriate for those seeking a house with standard construction and finishing details. Like Level 1, this level of service is recommended for simple designs, where everything is straight forward. This level of service is the same as previously described in Level 1. However, once a design is agreed upon, a Schematic Design Resolution Package is provided.
The Schematic Design Resolution Package contains additional information to lessen the burden on someone else completing the drawings. Even though you will still need to hire someone else to complete a set of drawings, suitable for obtaining the permit and construction, major dimensions will have been determined to aid in the creation of drawings. Services typically include the following phases and associated deliverables:
Schematic Design (SD) + Schematic Design Resolution Package
Includes services and deliverables as indicated in Level 1 , in addition, a Schematic Design Resolution Package is provided. The Schematic Design Resolution Package will be formatted at a size of 24×36, created via AutoCAD/BIM software, and consist of the following:
– Floor Plan(s)
– Roof Plan(s)
– Exterior Elevations- at each exterior facade
– Two (2) Building Sections
– One (1) Wall Section
LEVEL 3: SCHEMATIC DESIGN + DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DRAWINGS
This level of service is the same as previously described in Level 2. However, once a design is agreed upon, a set of Design Development Drawings is created. The Schematic Design is developed so it more precisely fits your desires and needs. Preliminary materials are indicated/selected for your house.
The Design Development drawings illustrate and describe the refinement of the design of your house. They establish the scope, relationships, forms, size, function, and aesthetic character of the house. These documents will outline the major materials and the building systems proposed. While these drawings are still not suitable for permitting and construction, they do start indicating additional information that assists in alleviating the contractor making assumptions. Services typically include the following phases and associated deliverables:
Schematic Design (SD) + Design Development (DD)
Includes services and deliverables as indicated in Level 2, in addition, Design Development Drawings will be created. The Design Development Drawings will be formatted at a size of 24×36, created via AutoCAD/BIM software, and typically consist of the following:
– Preliminary Architectural Site Plan in CAD (plot plan provided by Owner)
– Floor Plan(s)
– Roof Plan(s)
– Exterior Elevations- as needed
– Building Section(s)
– Preliminary Wall Sections and Details
– Preliminary Electrical Plans- locating outlets, telephone and cable only
– Preliminary Ceiling/Lighting Plans- locating lighting and switching only
– Preliminary Schedule Sheet(s)- including door and window schedule, interior finish schedule and interior elevations as required
– Preliminary General Specification Sheet- major materials and systems and establish their quality levels
LEVEL 4: FULL SCOPE OF ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES (psst… psst…this is the one you want)
This level of service is the same as previously described in Level 3. However, once Design Development is complete, a set of Construction Documents is created. These drawings are also used for obtaining a building permit and for construction of your house. All of the information obtained throughout the previous phases of work are incorporated and coordinated to create a set of drawings and documents that set forth in detail requirements for the construction of your house. This also includes structural engineering of your house.
This level of service offers you the greatest amount of specificity regarding your house, and consequently the greatest amount of control over the end ‘product.’ The resultant home will reflect who you are and how you live. Services typically include the following phases and associated deliverables:
Construction Document (CD)
Includes services and deliverables as indicated in Level 3 , in addition, Construction Documents consisting of Drawings and Specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for your house, including Drawings and Specifications that establish the quality levels of materials and systems required for your house, will be created. A typical Construction Document set will include:
– Cover Sheet
– General Specification Sheet(s) or Book Specifications
– Architectural Site Plan
– Foundation, Floor, and Roof Plan(s)
– Exterior Elevations
– Building Sections, Wall Sections, and Details
– Electrical Plans- locating outlets, telephone and cable only (circuitry by electrical subcontractor)
– Ceiling/Lighting Plans- locating lighting and switching only (circuitry by electrical subcontractor)
– Schedule Sheet(s)- including door and window schedule, interior finish schedule and interior elevations as required
– Selection sheets indicating what fixtures, appliances, lights, etc. that you need to select.
– Structural Framing Plans and Details as required (services provided by a structural engineer)
This is the construction phase of your project. Basically, we are involved during this process to see that the builder is following the Construction Documents during construction. Ideally, at a minimum, visits to the site would occur at; Foundation and Footings, Substantial Completion of Framing, Pre-Electrical, Before Drywall, Trim work approximately 50%, and Substantial Completion. This service is only provided if Level 4 is selected. There are far too many liabilities to be involved with the construction unless we are the author of the Construction Documents.
For any other services not indicated, and for any situation where our experience in residential design and construction would be of value, we are available on an hourly basis.
Ideally you would select Level 4. However, even limiting design services, there remains inherent value in employing the services of an architect. As a future client, you need to be aware of the options available such that you can realize your dream home. If you are considering/making such an investment, why not hire an architect to assist you in getting what you want? If you want your home to reflect who you are and how you live, hiring an architect is something you cannot afford not to do.
All of the previous posts in the ‘Hiring an Architect’ series can be found here:
Hiring an Architect: Part 1- The Search
Hiring an Architect: Part 2- Q&A Yourself
Hiring an Architect: Part 3- Ask the Architect
Hiring an Architect: Part 4- What? Me… hire an architect?
Armed with this series, a residential client should feel at ease about hiring and working with an architect. Architects will listen to your needs/wants and in the end you’ll have the home you wanted because your architect was able to assist you in bridging the gap between your budget, your vision and reality. You’ll end up with a home that fits you and your lifestyle. If you still have reservations or questions fell free to comment below or send me an email!
* Originally posted January 21 2015, edited/revised per date above- Even limiting the services of an architect will bring value to your home, it won’t come with large fries or a super size drink, but it will be added value.